:211, 214, Immigration from Mexico was not formally regulated until the Immigration Act of 1917,:213 but enforcement was lax and many exceptions were given for employers. View Collection Item. Widely blamed for exacerbating the overall economic downturn of the Great Depression, Mexicans were further targeted because of "the proximity of the Mexican border, the physical distinctiveness of mestizos, and easily identifiable barrios. From July 1930 to June 1931, it underwrote the cost of repatriation for over 90,000 nationals. Mexican migration increased during the 1910s and 1920s, pulled by U.S. needs for workers, particularly with the departures of Chinese and Japanese agricultural laborers, and pushed by the Mexican revolution and other upheavals. In 1936, pressure to get rid of unwelcome foreigner mounted even further: Colorado’s Governor Edwin Johnson ordered all “Mexicans” to leave the state. :6, Mexicans were often among the first to be laid off after the crash of 1929. (Center for Greater Southwestern Studies, and the Library at the Univ. , Mexican emigration to the United States was not significant until the construction of the railroad network between Mexico and the Southwest, which provided employment and eased transit. “Back in Hoover’s era, as America hung on the precipice of economic calamity—the Great Depression—the president was under enormous pressure to offer a solution for increasing unemployment, and to devise an emergency plan for the strained social safety net. ":59–64:72, After the peak of the repatriation, Los Angeles again threatened to deport "between 15,000 and 25,000 families" in 1934. "Strike leaders and picketers would be arrested, charged with being illegal aliens or engaging in illegal activities, and thus be subject to arbitrary deportation. During the economic and political crises of the 1920s and 1930s, the Border Patrol launched several campaigns to detain Mexicans, including some U.S.-born citizens, and expel them across the border. ":377 Independent groups such as the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the National Club of America for Americans also thought that deporting Mexicans would free up jobs for U.S. citizens and the latter group urged Americans to pressure the government into deporting Mexicans. The teaching resources are grounded in the books written by CU Boulder’s Distinguished Professor Marjorie McIntosh. During the Great Depression, some immigrants were no longer able to find work, and white Americans resented having jobs taken by foreigners. Primary Source Sets Repatriation and Deportation of Mexicans, 1932-1936 This resource examines deportation (or “repatriation”) of Mexicans who were unemployed or competed with white Americans for jobs during the 1930s, including a border blockade. “Apology Act for the 1930s Mexican Repatriation Program.” The Border Patrol launched several campaigns to detain Mexicans, including many U.S.-born citizens, and expel them across the border.  Mexican government sources suggest over 300,000 were repatriated between 1930 and 1933,:fn 20 while Mexican media reported up to 2,000,000 during a similar span. Full Text PDF: Chapter 4: Conflict, Racism, and Violence, 1910-1940. That definition apparently covered anyone who looked Latino, including people from New Mexico, Mexican immigrants who had already become US citizens, and American-born children. In total, they devoted four pages to the repatriation. 1. "A Forgotten Injustice": documentary film by a Mexican-American whose grandmother was forced to leave the US during the repatriation. Though he understood the pressing need to aid a crashing economy, Hoover resisted federal intervention, instead preferring a patchwork of piecemeal solutions, including the targeting of outsiders. In Boulder County, repatriation was sometimes cast in a positive light, described as a charitable effort to help unemployed Mexicans go home; it also reduced the amount that had to be spent on social assistance for them. ":76, Beginning in the early 1930s, local governments instigated repatriation programs, often conducted through local welfare bureaus or private charitable agencies. View Collection Item. :372–377 For example, in 1931 in Gary, Indiana, a number of people sought funding to return to Mexico, or took advantage of reduced-rate train tickets. At the beginning of the Great Depression, there were two primary sources of US residents of Mexican descent: territorial changes after the Mexican–American War, and migration.
:24 Prejudice played a factor: Mexicans were stereotyped as "unclean, improvident, indolent, and innately dull",:23 so many Mexicans did not apply for citizenship because they "knew that if [they] became a citizen [they] would still be, in the eyes of the Anglos, a Mexican". During the depression of 1907, the Mexican government allocated funds to repatriate some Mexicans living in the United States. :6, Mass deportation of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans between 1929 and 1936, Waving goodbye to a train carrying 1,500 persons being expelled from Los Angeles on August 20, 1931, Mexican-American migration before the Great Depression, Xicanx Institute for Teaching & Organizing, internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, "The Forgotten Repatriation of Persons of Mexican Ancestry and Lessons for the War on Terror", "The U.S.-Mexican War (1846-1848) - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo", "Chapter 5: Citizenship and Property Rights", "La Raza: Mexicans in the United States Census", "Mexican Repatriation Statistics: Some Suggested Alternatives to Carey McWilliams", "America's Forgotten History of Illegal Deportations", "Singing the Great Depression: Mexican and Mexican American Perspectives Through Corridos (1929-1949)", "The Employment Effects of Mexican Repatriations: Evidence from the 1930s", https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1939/07/18/93940224.pdf, https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1926/06/15/98382532.html?pageNumber=38, "L.A.'s Mexican American cultural center begins to blossom after a rocky start", "U.S. urged to apologize for 1930s deportations", "California Government Code: Mexican Repatriation [8720 - 8723]", "L.A. County Board of Supervisors to issue formal apology over Mexican Repatriation", "Mass Deportation May Sound Unlikely, But It's Happened Before", "Some stories hard to get in history books", "California law seeks history of Mexican deportations in textbooks", "Bill Text - AB-146 Pupil instruction: social sciences: deportations to Mexico", "Immigrants: The Last Time America Sent Her Own Packing", "Unconstitutional Deportation of Mexican Americans During the 1930s: A Family History and Oral History", Letter of repatriation (1933) sent by Los Angeles government to resident, Boulder, Colorado Repatriation and Deportation of Mexicans, 1932-1936, Category:American people of Mexican descent, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mexican_Repatriation&oldid=983021806, History of immigration to the United States, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, McKay, Robert R. "The Federal Deportation Campaign in Texas: Mexican Deportation from the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the Great Depression,".  About 3,000 decided to move to Mexican territory. 663, Sec. From: Alex Wagner, “America’s Forgotten History of Illegal Deportations,” The Atlantic, March 6, 2017. CALIFORNIA STATE APOLOGY (2006) “Apology Act for the 1930s Mexican Repatriation Program.” (Added by Stats. Effective January 1, 2006.). It is also likely that many union organizers, including the “agitators” among beet workers, were deported less voluntarily. 2005, Ch.  (emphasis added), The researchers suggest that this occurred in part because non-Mexican natives were paid lower wages after the repatriation, and because some jobs related to Mexican labor (such as managers of agricultural labor) were lost. Francisco Balderrama: author of Decade Of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation In The 1930s. , 80,000-100,000 Mexican citizens lived in this territory, and were promised U.S. citizenship under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican–American War. :2 This led to complaints and criticisms from both the Mexican Consulate and local Spanish language publication, La Opinión. :xiii:150 An estimated sixty percent of those deported were birthright citizens of the United States. :83 Los Angeles had the largest population of Mexicans outside of Mexico, and had a typical deportation approach, with a plan for "publicity releases announcing the deportation campaign, a few arrests would be made 'with all publicity possible and pictures,' and both police and deputy sheriffs would assist". :79 However, many were misled, and on departure, given a "stamp on their card [which showed] that they have been county charities". :26:98 These arguments continued after the beginning of the Great Depression. , The state of California apologized in 2005 by passing the "Apology Act for the 1930s Mexican Repatriation Program", which officially recognized the "unconstitutional removal and coerced emigration of United States citizens and legal residents of Mexican descent" and apologized to residents of California "for the fundamental violations of their basic civil liberties and constitutional rights committed during the period of illegal deportation and coerced emigration."
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