This understanding of the liquefaction hazard across Christchurch helps the Council make informed decisions about future land use and the building controls required to manage risk. He described the mechanism of flow liquefaction of the embankment dam as: Liquefaction can cause significant damage to land, buildings and infrastructure, through sediment being ejected to the ground surface, and subsequent ground settlement, ground cracking and lateral spreading. Liquefaction, sand volcanoes and vast quantities of grey sandy silt became the scourge of Christchurch on February 22, bubbling out of the ground during the biggest shakes and also during some of the magnitude 5.0 aftershocks. “We have taken all the observations about how the land has performed in previous earthquakes and brought these together with the extensive data and research gathered since then to map the liquefaction vulnerability of all the flat land in Christchurch,” Christchurch City Council Head of Strategic Policy Emma Davis says. Whole suburbs in the east were covered in the clinging, stinking mud, especially those around the Avon River and the Avon-Heathcote Estuary. Christchurch residents had been warned of the dangers from liquefaction for many years before that quake struck and have faced further clean-ups after February, most notably after the June 13 and December 23 quakes. The mapping includes new vulnerability categories that will eventually replace the TC1, 2 and 3 categories introduced in Christchurch after the earthquakes, as the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) introduces the new categories nationwide by next year. In a significant quake, the sand grains became packed closer together, squeezing the water up and out of the ground. In soil mechanics, the term "liquefied" was first used by Allen Hazen in reference to the 1918 failure of the Calaveras Dam in California. Following the earthquakes, a lot of information has been collected about the city’s ground conditions. Creative and Native - He rerehua, he taketake, Fertilising for the Future - Ka whakatō te wairākau mō āpōpō, Freshwater Frolicking - Te whawhewhawhe ki rō waimāori, Future Proof: Climate Change - Kaitiakitanga, Junior Park Explorers - Ngā Kairangahau Paaka, Rocky Road of Discovery - Te ara werowero ki te māramatanga, Saving the Sand Dunes - Kia ora ai te tāhuahua, Searching the Shoreline - Te ara rau o Tangaroa, Watch Your Waste - Kia mataara ki tāu para, 2002 to 2012 archived agendas and minutes, Additional provisions: Coastal hazards, Plantation forestry, Annual Individual Fatality Risk (AIFR) certificates, Proposed Christchurch Replacement District Plan, Results of feedback on the Port's Recovery Plan, Cashmere Spur and Bowenvale Valley Reserves, Ngā Puna Wai & Canterbury Agricultural Park, South New Brighton Reserves Development Plan, Toi Ō Tautahi - Arts and Creativity Strategy, Council and Crown earthquake cost sharing, Christchurch Economic Development Strategy, Our Heritage, Our Taonga – Heritage Strategy, Skateboarding, In-line Skating and BMX Cycling, Waterways and Wetlands Natural Asset Management, Equity and access for people with disabilities policy, Intersection design for people with disabilities, District scheme change speaking rights policy, Appointment and remuneration of directors, Customer services standards and principles policy, Property process for disposal of Council property, Dangerous and insanitary buildings policy, Conservation covenants for non-heritage properties, Abolition 2000 resolution for municipalities policy, Nuclear weapons and nuclear propelled ships policy, Footpath extensions to expand cafés onto the road, Psychoactive products retail locations policy, Trading and events in public places policy, Memorial seats in Council reserves policy, Port Hills reserves future management requirements, Rec and sport organisations - rating, ground charges, Māori land: Rates remission and postponement, Residents associations formation and recognition, Heavy vehicle parking in a residential area policy, Remotely piloted aircraft systems (Drones) policy, Sponsorship of trees and other planting on reserves, Water supply pipes installed in private land policy, Alcohol Restrictions in Public Places Bylaw 2018, Cleanfill & Waste Handling Operations Bylaw 2015, Cruising and Prohibited Times on Roads Bylaw 2014, Marine, River and Lake Facilities Bylaw 2017, Jan Gehl 'Public Space, Public Life' study, How to request official information (LGOIMA), Regular requests and public interest releases.
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